### Path Loss Modeling for Adamawa State University Mubi Using Multiple Probability Models

#### Abstract

Path loss is the reduction in the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signal strength (SS), its significant increase can lead to poor quality of service (QoS) received by the end-user of the ‘GSM’ network. In this work, path loss measured at Adamawa State University (ADSU), Mubi environment was modeled using multi probability models such as Lognormal, Nakagami, Rayleigh, and Rician distributions, the goodness of fit was applied to determine the best fit model, probability of the path loss exceeding the critical point was obtained, Hata model was adopted and optimised and “BTS’ height capable of improving the ‘SS’ was also obtained. The results show that mean of the path loss measured using the probability models: for Air Tell operator were 101.16dB, 103.30dB, 90.151dB, 101.43dB, for Global Com are 92.368dB, 95.232dB, 85.087dB, 95,377dB, for MTN are 91.368, 91.368dB, 91.594dB and 91.377 respectively. Goodness of fits (GoF) were obtained for Air Tell as 0.0025, 0.0125, 10.992, 0.0005, for Global Com as 0.0275, 0.0149, 10.179, 0.0001, for MTN as 0.0202, 0.095, 9.7819 and 0.0001 respectively. Probabilities of exceeding critical points were determined as 0.0210, 0.0151, and 0.0100 for Air Tell, Global Com, and MTN respectively, average mean square error of all operators were evaluated as 0.976, and Base Transceiver Station height was computed as 35m. It was observed that Air Tell operator experienced more path loss followed by Global Com and MTN is the least. Rician Distribution model was obtained as the best model because it has the least goodness of fit. This means that the GSM network QoS received at the university is mostly affected due to ground reflection. The path loss may exceed the critical point by an average of 3.17% and the BTS height at 35m can improve the QoS of the network in ADSU

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