Effects of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Macrophage Interaction: Surface Energetic Mechanism

Chukwueneke J. L., Chukwujike I. C.,, Sinebe J. E., Ugwuegbu C. D.

Abstract


The mechanisms effects of mtb – macrophage using surface energetic in determining the interaction processes with the surface interfacial energies explained using van der Waals concept of particle – particle interactions. The Lifshitz derivations for van der Waals forces were applied as an alternative to the contact angle approach which has been widely used in other biological systems. The methodology involved taking sputum samples from twenty infected persons and from twenty uninfected persons for absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet visible Spectrophotometer. Matlab software tools were used in the mathematical analysis of the data generated from the absorbance values. The values of A132abs = 0.21631x10-21Joule (for mtb infected sputum) and Ã132abs = 0.18825x10-21Joule (for mtb/HIV infected sputum) were obtained. The free energies of adhesion calculated were found to be negative with combined Hamaker coefficient positive. The implication of this result is the positive value of the absolute combined Hamaker coefficient which entails net positive van der waals forces demonstrating an attraction between mtb and the macrophage. This however, implies that infection is very likely to occur. It was also shown that in the presence of HIV, the interaction energy is reduced by 13% confirming adverse effects observed in HIV patients suffering from tb. Negative Hamaker coefficient (-0.22669x10-19mJ/m2) indicated that separation of mtb is practical. The condition was sought for repulsion to occur and that condition was based on the value of A33 that would render the absolute combined Hamaker coefficient A131abs negative. Mathematically it was derived as A33≥0.9527x10-21Joule which satisfies this condition for negative A132abs. To achieve the condition of A33 above, possible additive(s) in form of drugs to the sputum should be required.


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