Factors Influencing Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer Development among Women in Lokoja, North Central Nigeria

Jeremiah Ogah, Caroline Kolawole, Olatunde Alabi, Mustapha Suleiman, Oluwatomi Amuda & Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

Abstract


 Cervical cancer is increasingly becoming a high cause of cancer deaths in Nigeria; it has a high prevalence in Nigeria, as it is the case in most developing countries. This study was aimed at screening for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) using Papanicolaou screening procedure, and identifying the influencing factors amongst women in Lokoja, North central Nigeria. This was a cross sectional study involving women between the ages of 16-65 years, selected through convenience sampling of patients and staff that attended the Federal Medical Centre. Interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using correlational analysis. Results showed that of the 203 women in the study, 193 (95.07%) had normal cytology (they were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy), while 10 (4.93%) women had CIN. Socio-demographic characteristics showed that there were significant relationships between the age of the correspondents and the development of CIN (p = 0.015), significant association was also obtained between male partner circumcision (p=0.0262), coitarche (p=0.0046), parity (p=0.0019), alcohol usage (p=0.0026), age of first pregnancy (p=0.0326), use of steroid contraceptive (p=0.0104), number of sexual partners (p=0.0001) and the development of CIN. CIN present were low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, atypical squamous cell of uncertain significance, and squamous cell carcinoma. The major risk factors associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia development indicated in this study include; parity, alcohol usage and multiple sexual partners.


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